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November 27 2013

topher984
Much of the technical section gifts repair techniques as an instructional guide for the doit-yourselfer. The advice will be beneficial, however, for the architect, contractor, or programmer on largescale projects. It presents a methodology for approaching the evaluation and repair of existing windows, and considerations for replacing, that the professional can develop options and establish appropriate materials and processes.
Architectural or Historical Significance
Assessing the architectural or historical importance of windows is the first step in preparation for window treatments, and a general comprehension of the function and history of windows is essential to making a proper assessment. As a part of the assessment, one has to consider four fundamental window functions: supplying a visual link to the outside world, providing venting and fresh air to the interior, admitting light to the interior spaces, and improving the appearance of a building. No single factor could be disregarded when planning window treatments; as an example, attempting to store energy by closing up or reducing the size of window openings might cause the usage of more electricity by increasing electric lighting loads and decreasing passive solar heat gains.
Wood windows in a factory building. Windows are often important visual points of interest, particularly on straightforward facades like this factory building. Replacement of the windows with larger panes could radically alter the look of the building. Photo: NPS files.
Historically, the primary windows in early American houses were casement windows; that is, they were hinged in the medial side and opened outward. In the start of the eighteenth century single- and doublehung windows were introduced. Subsequently many varieties of the perpendicular sliding sash windows have come to be linked with unique building intervals or architectural styles, and this is a key factor in finding out the significance of windows, particularly on a local or regional basis. Sitespecific, regionally oriented architectural comparisons ought to be made to determine the significance of windows in question. Even though such comparisons may concentrate on their details and specific window types, the ultimate determination of significance ought to be produced within the context of the entire building, wherein the windows are one architectural element.
Windows must be considered critical to a building when they, after all of the variables are assessed:
are initial,
reflect the first design objective for the building,
Represent period or regional styles or building methods,
Reflect changes to the building caused by periods or occasions, or
are samples of exceptional craftsmanship or layout.
As soon as this assessment of importance has been finished, it will be possible to proceed with planning suitable treatments, beginning with a study of the physical state of the windows.
Physical Evaluation
The important thing to successful planning for window treatments is actually a careful assessment of present physical conditions on an unit-by-unit basis. A graphic or photographic system may be devised to record existing conditions and illustrate the scope of any needed repairs. Yet another powerful tool is really a window program which lists all of the elements of every window unit. Spaces by each part enable notes on existing conditions and repair instructions. When such a schedule is completed, it suggests the exact tasks to be carried out within the repair of each unit and becomes part of the specifications. In any evaluation, one needs to note at the very least:
window location
State of the paint
condition of the framework and sill
State of the sash (rails, stiles and muntins)
glazing issues
hardware, and
the overall condition of the window (excellent, fair, poor, and so forth)
Many factors such as for example wet, poor design, vandalism, insect attack, and shortage of maintenance can lead to window deterioration, but wet is the main contributing factor in wooden window rot. All window units should be inspected to see if water is entering around the edges of the frame and, if so, the joints or seams must be caulked to eliminate this risk. The glazing putty should be checked for cracked, loose, or missing sections which allow water to saturate the wood, particularly in the joints. The back putty on the interior phase of the pane should likewise be inspected, because it creates a seal which prevents condensation from running down to the joinery. The sill needs to be analyzed to insure that it enables water to drain off and slopes downward away in the building. Additionally, it may be advisable to cut a dripline over the underside of the sill. This nearly imperceptible treatment will guarantee proper water overflow, specially if the underside of the sill is flat. Any conditions, including poor initial layout, which enable water to come in contact with the wood or to puddle in the sill has to be corrected while they contribute to deterioration of the window.
Deteriorated wood window sill. Declension of poorly maintained windows generally begins on horizontal surfaces and at joints, where water can accumulate and saturate the wood. Photo: NPS files.
One hint to the location of areas of excessive moisture could be the state of the paint; hence, each window must be examined for regions of paint failure. Since excessive moisture is harmful for the paint bond, aspects of paint blistering, breaking, flaking, and peeling often identify points of moisture saturation, water penetration, and potential deterioration. Failure of the paint must not, however, be incorrectly interpreted as an indication the wood is really in poor condition and hence, irreparable. Wood is frequently in sound physical condition beneath unsightly paint. After noting areas of paint failure, the next phase would be to inspect the condition of the wood, particularly at the points identified throughout the paint examination.
Each window needs to be examined for operational soundness you start with the lower portions of the framework and sash. Interior condensation and exterior rain-water can flow down over the window, entering and accumulating at points where in fact the flow is blocked. The sill, joints between the sill and jamb, corners of the bottom rails and muntin joints are typical points where water collects and deterioration begins. The operation of the window (continuous opening and close over time and seasonal temperature changes) weakens the small separation, causing movement and joints. This procedure makes the joints more exposed to water which can be easily absorbed into the endgrain of the wood. If acute deterioration exists in these regions, it will generally be obvious on visual inspection, but other less severely deteriorated areas of the wood could be examined by two traditional methods utilizing a little ice-pick.
An ice pick or an awl can be utilized to analyze wood for soundness. The technique is merely to jab the pick into a wetted wood surface at an angle and pry up a tiny section of the wood. Sound wood will divide in long fibrous splinters, but decayed wood will lift up in a nutshell irregular pieces as a result of breakdown of fiber strength.
Another system of testing for soundness includes pushing a sharp object to the wood, perpendicular to the top. If deterioration has begun in the concealed side of a member and the core is badly decayed, the visible surface might seem to become sound wood. Pressure around the probe can force it through an apparently sound skin to penetrate deeply into decayed wood. This system is especially ideal for checking sills where visual access to the underside is confined.
Following a review plus investigation of the outcomes, the extent of the necessary repairs is likely to be evident along with a strategy for the rehabilitation might be invented. Generally the actions required to come back a window to "like new" condition will fall under three broad categories:
routine care procedures,
structural stabilization, and
parts replacement.
These categories will soon be discussed inside the following sections and is likely to be referred to respectively as Repair Class II, Repair Class I, and Repair Class III. Each serial repair type represents an increasing amount of difficulty, expense, and work time. Remember that most of the points mentioned in Repair Class I are routine maintenance items and ought to be supplied in a normal maintenance program for any building. The neglect of those routine pieces can lead to a lot of common window issues.
Before undertaking any of the fixes mentioned while in these sections all sources of moisture penetration should be identified and removed, and to be able to arrest the deterioration process all present decay fungi destroyed. Many commercially available fungicides and wood preservatives are hazardous, so it is extremely vital that you follow the producer's recommendations for application, and store all chemical materials far from kids and creatures. After preservative and fungicidal treatment the windows could be stabilized, retained, and restored with every expectation for a very long service life.
Repair Class I: Routine Maintenance
Brick and stone building showing cleaned and un-cleaned surfaces This historical doublehung window has many layers of paint, some missing and cracked putty, slight separation at the joints, broken sash cords, plus one cracked pane. Photo: NPS files. Worker using putty knives to pry window stop. After removing paint from the seam involving the stop as well as the jamb, as shown the stop could be pried out and gradually worked loose employing a pair of putty knives. Photo: NPS files.
Fixes to wooden windows are typically relatively uncomplicated and labor intensive. On small scale jobs this allows the do-it - yourselfer to cut costs by repairing all or part of the windows. It presents the opportunity for time and money which might otherwise be spent around the removal and replacement of existing windows, to be spent on repairs, subsequently saving all or area of the material cost of new window units on larger projects. Whatever the actual costs, or who performs the work, the evaluation process described earlier will supply the information from which to establish the work component priorities, define a proper work plan, and identify the degree of skill needed by the labor pool.
The regular maintenance needed to upgrade a window to "like new" state normally includes the following steps:
Some measure of exterior and interior paint removal,
Removal and repair of sash (including re-glazing where needed),
Fixes for the framework,
weatherstripping and reinstallation of the sash, and
repainting.
These procedures are illustrated for an average doublehung wooden window, nevertheless they could be adapted to other window types and styles as appropriate.
Historic windows have usually obtained many layers of paint as time passes. Removal of extra layers or flaking and peeling paint will facilitate functioning of the window and restore the clarity of the first detailing. Some measure of paint removal is also mandatory as a beginning step in the proper surface preparation for succeeding re-finishing (if paint color analysis is desired, it ought to be conducted prior to the start of the paint removal). There are numerous safe and effective techniques for removing paint from wood, depending on the amount of paint to be removed.
Paint removal should start to the interior frames, being careful to get rid of the paint from the interior stop and also the parting bead, especially over the seam where these stops meet with the jamb. This is sometimes achieved by running an utility knife along the size of the seam, breaking the paint bond. It's going to then be much easier to eliminate the sash, the parting bead as well as the stop. The stop could possibly be initially loosened from the side to prevent visible scarring of the wood and gradually pried loose utilizing a pair of putty knives, working up and down the stop in small increments. Together with the stop removed, the lower or interior sash could possibly be withdrawn. The sash cords should really be detached in the faces of the sash as well as their ends might be pinned having a nail or tied in a knot to keep them from falling to the weight pocket.
Worker using heat gun on window sash. Sash might be removed and mended in a convenient work space. Paint is being removed using this sash with a hot air gun. Photo: NPS files.
Removal of the top sash on double-hung units is similar but the parting bead which holds it in place is placed right into a groove in the middle of the stile and is thinner and more delicate as opposed to interior stop. After removing any paint across the seam, the parting bead ought to be cautiously pried out as well as worked free while in the same style while the stop. The upper sash might be taken out within the same style as the reduced one and both sash taken to a suitable work area (in order to take out the sash the stop and parting bead need only be taken out from one side of the window). Window openings can be covered with polyethylene sheets or plywood sheathing as the sash are out for repair.
The sash can be stripped of paint using appropriate techniques, but if any heat treatment is employed, the glass needs to be removed or shielded from the sudden temperature change which may cause breakage. An overlay of aluminum foil on gypsum board or asbestos can protect the glass from such speedy temperature change. It's essential to defend the glass regularly adds character for the window and because it can be historic. Deteriorated putty should really be removed manually, taking care not to damage the wood along the rabbet. If the glass will be removed, the points which hold the glass in position might be extracted and the panes numbered and removed for cleaning and re-use within exactly the same openings. With all the glass panes out, the residual putty can be removed along with the sash may be patched, sanded, and primed using a preservative primer. Hardened putty within the rabbets might be softened by heat with a soldering iron at the stage of removal. Putty staying around the glass could be softened by soaking the panes in linseed oil, and then removed with less danger of breaking the glass. Before reinstalling the glass, a bead of glazing compound or linseed oil putty should really be laid around the rabbet to cushion and seal the glass. Glazing compound should only be utilized on wood which has been brushed with linseed oil and primed with an oil based primer or paint. The pane is then pressed in to position along with the points are pushed into the wood throughout the margin of the pane.
The final glazing compound or putty is applied and beveled to finish the seal. The sash could be refinished as desired in the interior and painted in the outside as soon as a "skin" has formed around the putty, typically in 2 or 3 days. Exterior paint should cover the beveled glazing compound or putty and lap over onto the glass slightly to finish a weather-tight seal. After the proper curing times have elapsed for putty and paint, the sash is likely to be ready for reinstallation.
Two-over-two wood window. After the comparatively straightforward repairs, the window is weathertight, like new in appearance, and serviceable for quite some time to come. Photo: NPS files.
As the sash are out of the frame, the state of the wood inside the sill and jamb might be assessed. Repair and re-finishing of the framework may proceed concurrently with repairs towards the sash, using the curing times for your paints and putty used on the sash. Among probably the most typical work items is the replacement of the sash cords with new rope cords or with chains. The weight pocket is frequently accessible through a door around the face of the frame near the sill, but when no door exists, the trim around the inside face could be removed for access. Sash weights could possibly be raised for easier window operation by elderly or impaired persons. Additional repairs for the framework and sash may include consolidation or replacement of deteriorated wood. Techniques for all these repairs are discussed within the following sections.
The operations only talked about summarize the efforts required to revive a window with minor deterioration to "like new" condition. The methods may be applied by an unskilled person with nominal training as well as experience. To demonstrate the practicality of the strategy, and photograph it, a Technical Preservation Services staff member fixed a wooden double hung, two over two window which had held it's place in service over ninety years. The wood was structurally sound but the window had one broken pane, many layers of paint, broken sash cords and inadequate, worn out weather-stripping. The staff member discovered that the framework could be stripped of paint and the sash removed quite readily. Putty, paint and glass removal demanded about one hour for each sash, and the reglazing of both sash was attained in about one hour. Weather-stripping of the framework and sash, replacement of the sash cords and re-installation of the stop, parting bead, and sash needed one hour and a half. These times refer just to individual operations; the whole procedure took several days because of the drying and curing times for putty, primer, and paint, however, work on other window units might have been in progress during these lag times.

November 26 2013

topher984
Much of the technical section gift suggestions repair methods as an educational guide for the doit-yourselfer. The information will be beneficial, nevertheless, for the architect, contractor, or developer on projects. It presents a methodology for approaching the assessment and repair of existing windows, and factors for replacing, where the professional can develop options and specify appropriate materials and processes.
Architectural or Historical Importance
Assessing the architectural or historical value of windows is step one in preparation for window treatments, and an overall comprehension of the function and history of windows is essential to making a suitable assessment. As a part of this assessment, one has to consider four basic window functions: providing ventilation and clean air to the interior, admitting light to the interior spaces, giving a visual connection to the external earth, and enhancing the appearance of a structure. No single variable may be disregarded when planning window treatments; as an example, trying to store electricity by closing up or reducing the size of window openings may lead to the usage of more energy by decreasing passive solar heat gains and increasing electric lighting loads.
Wood windows in a mill building. Windows are frequently important visual points of interest, particularly on straightforward facades like this mill building. Replacement of the windows with larger panes could dramatically alter the appearance of the building. Photo: NPS files.
Historically, the windows in early American houses were casement windows; that is, they were hinged at the medial side and opened out. In the beginning of the eighteenth century single- and doublehung windows were introduced. Subsequently many types of the perpendicular sliding sash windows have turned out to be associated with unique building periods or architectural styles, and this is an essential factor in finding out the need for windows, notably on a local or regional basis. Site-specific, regionally oriented architectural comparisons ought to be made to determine the need for windows in question. Even though such comparisons might concentrate on their details and specific window types, the greatest determination of significance ought to be made within the context of the whole building, wherein the windows are one architectural element.
After every one of the variables are assessed, windows must be considered significant to a building if they:
are initial,
reflect the original design objective for the building,
Represent period or regional styles or building methods,
Reflect changes to the building resulting from periods or events, or
are types of exceptional craftsmanship or design.
As soon as this evaluation of value was completed, it will be possible to proceed with planning proper treatments, beginning with an investigation of the physical state of the windows.
Physical Assessment
The important thing to successful preparation for drapes and window treatments is actually a careful evaluation of existing physical conditions on an unit-by-unit basis. A graphical or photographic system could be devised to record existing conditions and exemplify the scope of any necessary repairs. Another effective tool is a window program which lists all the elements of each and every window unit. Spaces by each part allow notes on present conditions and repair instructions. It suggests the exact tasks to be performed within the fixing of each and every unit and becomes a part of the specifications, when such a schedule is completed. In just about any assessment, one needs to notice at the very least:
window location
condition of the paint
State of the frame and sill
condition of the sash (rails, stiles and muntins)
glazing issues
hardware, and
the general state of the window (exceptional, fair, poor, and so forth)
Many variables including vandalism, wet, poor design, insect attack, and too little care can contribute to window deterioration, but wet may be the principal contributing factor in wooden window decay. All window units must be inspected to see if water is entering across the edges of the frame and, if so, the joints or seams needs to be caulked to remove this danger. The glazing putty needs to be checked for cracked, loose, or missing sections which permit water to saturate the wood, particularly at the joints. Since it makes a seal which prevents condensation from running down to the joinery, the rear putty to the interior side of the pane must likewise be inspected. The sill should really be analyzed to insure that it slopes down away from the building and permits water to drain off. Additionally, it may be wise to cut a dripline over the bottom of the sill. This almost imperceptible treatment will ensure proper water run-off, especially in the event the underside of the sill is flat. Any conditions, including poor original layout, which permit water to come connected together with the wood or even to puddle to the sill should be corrected while they contribute to deterioration of the window.
Deteriorated wood window sill. Deterioration of poorly maintained windows normally begins on horizontal surfaces and at joints, where water can accumulate and saturate the wood. Photo: NPS files.
One clue towards the location of aspects of excessive moisture is the state of the paint; so, each window should really be examined for regions of paint failure. Since excessive moisture is harmful towards the paint bond, aspects of paint blistering, cracking, flaking, and peeling usually identify points of water penetration, moisture saturation, and potential deterioration. Failure of the paint should not, however, be wrongly interpreted being a symptom that the wood is really in poor condition and thus, irreparable. Wood is frequently in sound physical condition beneath unsightly paint. After noting areas of paint failure, the next phase is to inspect the condition of the wood, especially in the points identified during the paint examination.
Each window ought to be examined for operational soundness beginning with the lower parts of the frame and sash. Interior condensation and exterior rain-water can flow downward over the window, entering and accumulating at points where in fact the flow is obstructed. The sill, joints between the sill and jamb, corners of the bottom rails and muntin joints are typical points where water gathers and deterioration begins. The operation of the window (continuous opening and closing through the years and seasonal temperature changes) weakens the small separation, causing movement and joints. This process makes the joints more vulnerable to water that will be easily absorbed to the endgrain of the wood. It is going to usually be noticeable on visual inspection, if severe deterioration exists in these regions, but other less severely deteriorated sections of the wood could be examined by two conventional approaches utilizing a small ice-pick.
An ice pick or an awl might be used to test wood for soundness. The technique is only to jab the pick in to a wetted wood surface with an angle and pry up a small segment of the wood. Good wood will divide in long fibrous splinters, but decayed wood will lift up in a nutshell irregular sections because of the break down of fiber strength.
Another system of testing for soundness consists of pushing a sharp object to the wood, perpendicular towards the top. If deterioration has begun from the hidden side of a member and the core is poorly decayed, the visible surface might seem to become good wood. Pressure around the probe can push it through an apparently sound skin to penetrate deeply into decayed wood. This technique is especially helpful for checking sills where visual use of the underside is restricted.
Following the review as well as analysis of the outcome, the extent of the necessary repairs is likely to be obvious and a plan for the rehabilitation can be invented. Generally the actions required to come back a window to "like new" state will fall into three broad classes:
routine maintenance procedures,
structural stabilization, and
parts replacement.
These classes will soon be referred to respectively and will undoubtedly be discussed within the subsequent sections as Repair Class II, Repair Class I, and Repair Class III. Each consecutive repair class represents an improving level of difficulty, expense, and work time. Remember that most of the points mentioned in Repair Class I are routine maintenance items and should be supplied in a normal maintenance plan for just about any building. The neglect of these routine pieces can contribute to numerous common window problems.
Before undertaking any of the fixes mentioned while in the following sections all sources of moisture penetration ought to be identified and eliminated, and to be able to arrest the deterioration process all existing decay fungi destroyed. Many commercially available fungicides and wood preservatives are noxious, therefore it is incredibly vital that you follow the manufacturer's recommendations for use, and store all chemical substances far from children and animals. After preservative and fungicidal treatment the windows may be kept, stabilized, and restored with every expectation for a long service life.
Repair Class I: Routine Care
Brick and stone building showing un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces This historic double-hung window has many layers of paint, some cracked and lost putty, slight separation at the joints, broken sash cords, and one cracked pane. Photo: NPS files. Worker using putty knives to pry window stop. After removing paint from the seam involving the interior stop and the jamb, as shown the stop may be pried out and slowly worked loose employing a pair of putty knives. Photo: NPS files.
Repairs to wooden windows are typically labor intensive and relatively uncomplicated. On small scale jobs this enables the do-it - yourselfer to save money by fixing all or part of the windows. It presents the opportunity for time and money which can otherwise be spent to the removal and replacement of existing windows, to become spent on repairs, subsequently saving all or area of the material cost of new window units on larger projects. Regardless of the real prices, or who performs the work, the evaluation process described before will provide the information that to establish the work element priorities, define a suitable work plan, and identify the level of skill needed by the labor force.
The routine maintenance needed to update a window to "like new" condition typically includes the following steps:
Some amount of exterior and interior paint removal,
Removal and repair of sash (including re-glazing where necessary),
repairs to the frame,
weatherstripping and reinstallation of the sash, and
Re-painting.
These procedures are illustrated for a normal doublehung wooden window, however they could be adapted to other window types and styles as applicable.
Historic windows have usually acquired many layers of paint over time. Removal of excess layers or peeling and flaking paint will facilitate operation of the window and restore the clarity of the original detailing. Some measure of paint removal can also be essential as a beginning step in the proper surface preparation for subsequent re-finishing (if paint color analysis is desired, it ought to be conducted prior towards the onset of the paint removal). There are lots of safe and powerful processes for removing paint from wood, depending on the amount of paint to be removed.
Paint removal should begin about the interior frames, being careful to take out the paint from the stop and also the parting bead, especially across the seam where these stops meet the jamb. This could be accomplished by running an utility knife over the size of the seam, breaking the paint bond. It is going to then really be much simpler to take away the parting bead, the stop as well as the sash. The stop might be initially loosened in the sash side to avoid visible scarring of the wood and then slowly pried loose employing a set of putty knives, working up and down the stop in little increments. Together with the stop removed, the lower or interior sash could be withdrawn. The sash cords should really be detached from your faces of the sash and their ends could possibly be pinned having a nail or tied in a knot to keep them from falling into the weight pocket.
Worker using heat gun on window sash. Sash could be repaired and removed in a convenient work space. Paint is being removed using this sash using a heat gun. Photo: NPS files.
Removal of the upper sash on double-hung units is similar but the parting bead which holds it in place is set into a groove in the middle of the stile and is thinner and much more delicate as opposed to stop. After removing any paint along the seam, the parting bead must be carefully pried out and worked free inside the same style while the interior stop. Both sash taken up to a convenient work space (in order to take out the sash the interior stop and parting bead need only be taken out from one aspect of the window and the upper sash could be taken out inside the same fashion as the lower one). Window openings can be covered with polyethylene sheets or plywood sheathing whilst the sash are out for repair.
The sash might be stripped of paint using appropriate methods, but if any heat treatment is employed, the glass should be removed or protected from your sudden temperature change which may result in breakage. The glass can be protected by an overlay of aluminum foil on gypsum board or asbestos from such quick temperature change. It is significant to defend the glass frequently adds character to the window and as it might be historic. Deteriorated putty needs to be removed by hand, taking care not to damage the wood across the rabbet. In case the glass is usually to be removed, the points which support the glass in place could be extracted as well as the panes numbered and removed for cleaning and re-use in precisely the same openings. The rest of the putty might be removed along with the sash could be sanded, patched, and primed with a primer, with all the glass panes out. Hardened putty inside the rabbets may be softened by heat having a soldering iron in the point of removal. Putty remaining in the glass may be softened by soaking the panes in linseed oil, and then removed with less threat of breaking the glass. Before reinstalling the glass, a bead of glazing compound or linseed oil putty needs to be laid round the rabbet to cushion and seal the glass. Glazing compound should only be used on wood that continues to be brushed with linseed oil and primed using an oil based primer or paint. The pane is then pressed in to place along with the points are shoved into the wood across the margin of the pane.
The final glazing compound or beveled and putty is applied to complete the seal. The sash may be refinished as desired in the interior and painted in the outside as soon as a "skin" has formed on the putty, typically in 2 or 3 days. Exterior paint should cover the beveled glazing compound or putty and lap over onto the glass slightly to finish a weather-tight seal. The sash will soon be ready for reinstallation, after the proper curing times have elapsed for paint and putty.
Two over-two wood window. After the comparatively straightforward repairs, the window is weathertight, like new in look, and serviceable for several years ahead. Photo: NPS files.
The state of the wood inside the jamb and sill could be assessed, whilst the sash are out from the framework. Repair and re-finishing of the framework may proceed concurrently with fixes towards the sash, using the curing times for your paints and putty used in the sash. Among the most typical work items could be the replacement of the sash cords with new rope cords or with chains. The weight pocket is frequently accessible by way of a door around the face of the frame nearby the sill, but when no door exists, the trim around the interior face might be removed for access. Sash weights could be increased for easier window operation by elderly or disabled persons. Additional repairs for the framework and sash might include consolidation or replacement of deteriorated wood. Processes for these repairs are discussed inside the following sections.
The operations merely discussed summarize the efforts required to bring back a window with minor deterioration to "like new" state. The methods may be utilized by an unskilled person with nominal training as well as experience. To demonstrate the practicality of the tactic, and photograph it, a Technical Preservation Services staff member mended a wooden doublehung, two over two window which had been in service over ninety years. The wood was structurally sound but the window had one broken pane, many layers of paint, broken sash cords and inadequate, worn out weather-stripping. The staff member found the frame could possibly be stripped of paint and also the sash removed quite easily. Putty, paint and glass removal needed about one hour for every single sash, and the reglazing of both sash was attained in about one hour. Weather-stripping of the framework and sash, replacement of the sash cords and reinstallation of the parting bead, sash, and cease required one hour and a half. These times refer only to individual operations; the whole procedure took several days because of the curing and drying times for primer, putty, and paint, however, work on different window units could have been around in progress all through these lag times.
topher984
A door is a good buffer for starting or closing an entrance way including related framing supplies. Wooden doors have been the conventional outside doorway even though weather firmness is always enhanced with the inclusion of a storm door, as wood has certain natural insulating properties. However, the largest wood door does not provide as much insulation value as a badly insulated wall.
Solid wood doors provide reasonable protection conditioned upon the quantity of glass region, the equipment used and also the standard of setup. Worsening of the wood veneer on the surface subjected to the outside can be a familiar issue.

Metal doors, often having cosmetic moulding on top, are generally used as exterior doors in contemporary construction and typically have a metal outside skin together with an internal insulation materials (usually polystyrene or memory). Magnetic weather-stripping may be used to make a suitable air seal. Difficulties have happened whenever a storm door is added to an insulated steel door. The space between the doors can become over-heated, the molds can be affected, and in some cases, the steel door panel may even buckle. Many manufacturers don't advocate the application of storm doors with this sort of alloy door.

Explaining a Door Frame

The framework, upon which a door is hung is manufactured from wood or hollow metal and contains the following:
One) Head - The horizontal top portion of the door-frame
2) Jamb - Either the left or right vertical portion of the frame.
3) Sill - The bottom of the door at floor-level
4) Stop - A continuous projection round the framework to avoid the door from venturing beyond a closing level.
5) Dollar - The sub frame of timber or pressed metal to that the door instance is repaired.

Describing a Sliding-glass Door (Patio Door)

The sliding-glass door is a popular feature in residential house because the 1950's. Early designs were made of metal that frequently led to condensation and ice to the inside areas.
The introduction of winter breaks between the outer and inner halves, closing / locking components and improved framing have substantially improved the merchandise through the previous four decades. In particular, the winter break was powerful in keeping the interior steel part of the framework warmer, thereby reducing or removing condensation and frosting.

Sliding doors commonly got two thickness of glass. Each pane can maintain another sliding-door component, or there might be one door sash using a dual glazed or even multiple glazed lite. Better quality sliding doors are distinguished by higher-priced hardware and innovative means of adjusting.
topher984
A lot of the technical section presents repair methods as an instructional guide for the do-it-yourselfer. The information will likely be beneficial, however, for the architect, contractor, or programmer on largescale projects. It presents a methodology for approaching the evaluation and repair of existing windows, and factors for replacement, where the professional can develop alternatives and set appropriate materials and processes.
Architectural or Historical Value
Assessing the architectural or historical value of windows is step one in preparation for window treatments, and a general understanding of the history and function of windows is essential to making a proper assessment. As you have to consider four basic window functions: providing clean air and venting to the interior, admitting light to the interior spaces, providing a visual connection to the external world, and improving the look of a structure, a part of this evaluation. No single factor might be disregarded when planning window treatments; as an example, trying to store energy by closing up or diminishing the size of window openings may lead to the usage of more electricity by decreasing passive solar heat gains and increasing electrical lighting loads.
Wood windows in a factory building. Windows are often important visual points of interest, especially on simple facades similar to this mill building. Replacement of the multi pane windows with larger panes could drastically change the look of the building. Photo: NPS files.
Historically, the windows in early American houses were casement windows; that is, they were hinged at the medial side and opened out. In the start of the eighteenth century single- and doublehung windows were introduced. Subsequently many types of those perpendicular sliding sash windows have turned out to be associated with special building intervals or architectural styles, and this is an important consideration in finding out the significance of windows, especially on a local or regional basis. Sitespecific, regionally oriented architectural comparisons must be produced to determine the significance of windows in question. Even though such comparisons might concentrate on specific window types and their details, the best determination of significance ought to be produced within the specific context of the whole building, wherein the windows are one architectural element.
After all of the variables have been assessed, windows should be considered vital to a building when they:
are first,
Represent the original design intention for the building,
Represent period or regional styles or building practices,
Reflect changes to the building resulting from major periods or events, or
are types of exceptional craftsmanship or layout.
Once this assessment of value was finished, it's possible to carry on with planning suitable treatments, beginning with a study of the physical condition of the windows.
Physical Evaluation
The important thing to successful preparation for drapes and window treatments is actually a careful assessment of existing physical conditions on an unit-by-unit basis. A graphical or photographic system could possibly be devised to record existing conditions and illustrate the extent of any essential repairs. Still another effective tool is really a window schedule which lists all the areas of each window unit. Spaces by each part let notes on existing conditions and repair instructions. It suggests the exact tasks to be performed within the fixing of each and every unit and becomes part of the specifications, when such a schedule is completed. In just about any evaluation, one ought to note at the very least:
window location
condition of the paint
State of the frame and sill
condition of the sash (rails, stiles and muntins)
glazing problems
hardware, and
the overall condition of the window (excellent, fair, poor, and so on)
Many variables including moisture, poor design, vandalism, insect attack, and shortage of maintenance can lead to window deterioration, but wet is the principal contributing factor in wooden window decay. All window units needs to be inspected to see if water is entering across the edges of the frame and, if so, the joints or seams must be caulked to eliminate this risk. The glazing putty ought to be checked for cracked, loose, or missing sections which enable water to saturate the wood, especially in the joints. The back putty to the interior side of the pane should even be inspected, since it makes a seal which prevents condensation from running down to the joinery. The sill ought to be examined to insure it slopes down away in the building and allows water to drain off. In addition, it could be wise to cut a dripline along the bottom of the sill. Proper water runoff will be insured by this almost invisible treatment, particularly if the underside of the sill is level. Any conditions, including poor original layout, which enable water to come connected together with the wood or to puddle on the sill must be corrected as they contribute to deterioration of the window.
Deteriorated wood window sill. Deterioration of badly maintained windows normally begins on horizontal surfaces and at joints, where water can gather and saturate the wood. Photo: NPS files.
One hint for the place of aspects of excessive moisture may be the state of the paint; so, each window should be examined for aspects of paint failure. Since excessive moisture is harmful to the paint bond, aspects of paint blistering, breaking, flaking, and peeling often identify points of moisture saturation, water penetration, and possible deterioration. Failure of the paint should not, however, be mistakenly interpreted being a symptom the wood is in poor condition and therefore, irreparable. Wood is frequently in sound physical condition beneath unsightly paint. After noting aspects of paint failure, the next phase is to inspect the state of the wood, especially in the points identified during the paint assessment.
Each window needs to be examined for operational soundness beginning with the lower parts of the framework and sash. Interior condensation and exterior rain-water can flow down along the window, entering and accumulating at points where in actuality the flow is obstructed. The sill, joints between the sill and jamb, corners of the bottom rails and muntin joints are typical points where water collects and deterioration begins. The operation of the window (constant opening and closing over the years and seasonal temperature changes) weakens the joints, causing movement and slight separation. This process makes the joints more vulnerable to water which is easily absorbed into the endgrain of the wood. If severe deterioration exists in these regions, it is going to generally be evident on visual inspection, but other less gravely deteriorated areas of the wood could be analyzed by two conventional methods using a small ice-pick.
An ice pick or an awl can be utilized to test wood for soundness. The technique is simply to jab the pick in to a wetted wood surface at an angle and pry up a little segment of the wood. Sound wood will separate in long fibrous splinters, but decayed wood will lift up in short irregular pieces due to the breakdown of fiber strength.
Another system of testing for soundness consists of pushing a sharp object into the wood, perpendicular towards the top. If deterioration has begun from your concealed side of a member and also the core is poorly decayed, the observable surface may appear to be sound wood. It can be forced by pressure on the probe through an apparently sound skin to penetrate deeply into decayed wood. This technique is particularly ideal for checking sills where visual access to the underside is limited.
Following the review and analysis of the outcomes, the scope of the necessary repairs will undoubtedly be evident along with a strategy for your rehabilitation can be formulated. Broadly speaking the actions required to return a window to "like new" state will fall under three broad groups:
routine maintenance procedures,
structural stabilization, and
parts replacement.
These types will be known respectively and will probably be discussed within the subsequent sections as Repair Class II, Repair Class I, and Repair Class III. Each successive repair group represents an improving level of difficulty, expense, and work time. Note that most of the points mentioned in Repair Class I are routine maintenance items and ought to be supplied in a normal maintenance plan for just about any building. The neglect of the routine pieces can lead to numerous common window issues.
Before undertaking the repairs mentioned while in these sections all sources of moisture penetration must be recognized and eliminated, and as a way to arrest the deterioration process all present decay fungi ruined. Many commercially available fungicides and wood preservatives are hazardous, so it is incredibly vital that you follow the producer's recommendations for use, and store all chemical materials away from kids and creatures. After fungicidal and preservative treatment the windows could possibly be stabilized, kept, and restored with every expectation for a very long service life.
Repair Class I: Regular Care
Brick and stone building showing uncleaned and cleaned surfaces This historical double-hung window has one cracked pane, some cracked and lost putty, small separation at the joints, broken sash cords, and many layers of paint. Photo: NPS files. Worker using putty knives to pry window stop. After removing paint from the seam between the jamb along with the stop, the stop might be pried out and slowly worked loose utilizing a pair of putty knives as shown. Photo: NPS files.
Fixes to wooden windows are typically labor intensive and relatively uncomplicated. This lets the do-it - yourselfer to cut costs by fixing all or part of the windows on small scale projects. It presents the opportunity for time and money that might otherwise be spent on the removal and replacement of existing windows, to be spent on repairs, subsequently saving all or area of the material cost of new window units on larger projects. Whatever the actual costs, or who performs the work, the evaluation process described previously will supply the information from which to establish the work element priorities, specify a suitable work plan, and identify the level of skill needed by the labor force.
The routine maintenance required to update a window to "like new" condition normally contains the following measures:
Some degree of exterior and interior paint removal,
Removal and repair of sash (including re-glazing where required),
Fixes for the frame,
weatherstripping and re-installation of the sash, and
repainting.
These operations are illustrated to get an average doublehung wooden window, nevertheless they could be adapted to other window types and styles as related.
Historic windows have generally obtained many layers of paint as time passes. Removal of excess layers or peeling and flaking paint will restore the clarity of the original detailing and facilitate functioning of the window. Some level of paint removal is also needed as a beginning step in the proper surface preparation for succeeding refinishing (if paint color analysis is desired, it should be conducted prior for the start of the paint removal). There are several safe and effective techniques for removing paint from wood, with regards to the number of paint to be removed.
Paint removal should commence to the interior frames, being careful to get rid of the paint from the stop and the parting bead, particularly over the seam where these stops meet up with the jamb. This can be accomplished by running an utility knife along the size of the seam, breaking the paint bond. It is going to then be much simpler to eliminate the parting bead, the stop and the sash. The interior stop could be initially loosened from your side to avert visible scarring of the wood and after that slowly pried loose using a couple of putty knives, working up and down the stop in little increments. Using the stop removed, the lower or interior sash might be withdrawn. The sash cords needs to be detached from your surfaces of the sash and their ends might be pinned with a nail or tied in a knot to prevent them from falling into the weight pocket.
Worker using heat gun on window sash. Sash can be mended and removed in a convenient work space. Paint has been removed from this sash with a heat gun. Photo: NPS files.
Removal of the top sash on doublehung units is similar but the parting bead which holds it in place is defined into a groove in the center of the stile and is thinner and much more delicate compared to the stop. After removing any paint over the seam, the parting bead must be carefully pried out and worked free in the same way while the interior stop. Both sash taken up to a convenient work space (in order to get rid of the sash the stop and parting bead need only be removed from one aspect of the window and the top sash can be removed within the same way as the lower one). Window openings can be covered with polyethylene sheets or plywood sheathing while the sash are out for repair.
The sash could be stripped of paint using suitable techniques, but if any heat treatment can be used, the glass should really be removed or protected from your abrupt temperature change which may lead to breakage. An overlay of aluminum foil on gypsum board or asbestos can shield the glass from such swift temperature change. It is crucial to defend the glass regularly adds character to the window and since it may be historical. Deteriorated putty must be taken away by hand, taking care not to damage the wood across the rabbet. In the event the glass will be removed, the glazing points which hold the glass in position could be pulled along with the panes numbered and removed for cleaning and re-use inside the exact same openings. Using the glass panes out, the putty could be removed along with the sash might be patched, sanded, and primed using a primer. Hardened putty inside the rabbets could possibly be softened by heating using a soldering iron at the stage of removal. Putty remaining in the glass could possibly be softened by soaking the panes in linseed oil, and then removed with less risk of breaking the glass. Before reinstalling the glass, a bead of glazing compound or linseed oil putty must be laid throughout the rabbet to cushion and seal the glass. Glazing compound should only be properly used on wood which is brushed with linseed oil and primed having an oil based primer or paint. The pane is then pressed in to place and the points are shoved into the wood throughout the perimeter of the pane.
The final glazing compound or putty is applied and beveled to finish the seal. The sash might be re-finished as desired around the inside and painted in the surface as soon as a "skin" has formed to the putty, usually in a few days. Exterior paint should cover the beveled glazing compound or putty and lap over onto the glass slightly to finish a seal. Following the proper curing times have elapsed for paint and putty, the sash will soon be prepared for re-installation.
Two-over-two wood window. Following a relatively straightforward repairs, the window is weathertight, like new in appearance, and serviceable for several years in the future. Photo: NPS files.
The condition of the wood inside the sill and jamb may be assessed, while the sash are out from the frame. Repair and refinishing of the frame may proceed concurrently with repairs for the sash, taking advantage of the times for your paints and putty used to the sash. Among probably the most usual work things will be the replacement of the sash cords with new rope cords or with chains. The weight pocket is often accessible through a door on the surface of the frame nearby the sill, but when no door exists, the trim in the inside face could possibly be removed for access. Sash weights could possibly be raised for easier window operation by elderly or disabled individuals. Additional repairs to the framework and sash may include consolidation or replacement of deteriorated wood. Techniques for all these repairs are discussed in the following sections.
The operations just discussed summarize the efforts needed to revive a window with minor deterioration to "like new" state. The methods might be used by an unskilled person with minimal training and expertise. To present the practicality of this strategy, and photograph it, a Technical Preservation Services staff member fixed a wooden double-hung, two over two window which had been in service over ninety years. The wood was structurally sound but the window had one broken pane, many layers of paint, broken sash cords and substandard, wornout weatherstripping. The staff member discovered the framework might be stripped of paint along with the sash removed quite readily. Putty, paint and glass removal needed about one hour for every sash, and the re-glazing of both sash was accomplished in about one hour. Weatherstripping of the sash and framework, replacement of the sash cords and re-installation of the sash, parting bead, and discontinue required an hour or so and a half. These times refer just to individual operations; the entire procedure took several days on account of the curing and drying times for putty, primer, and paint, however, work on other window units might have been around in progress all through these lag times.
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